Tag Archives: hyena

Hyenas: the “how” of female masculinization (Part 4)

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Ambiguous genitalia at birth can be produce by genetic and/or hormonal causes. Genetic causes e.g. true hermaphrodites with gonads containing both female & male genes are very rare. More frequently ambiguous genitalia are caused by mutations in genes controlling sex hormone metabolism of … Continue reading

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Hyenas: the “how” of female masculinization (Part 3)

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In part 3 we will discuss normal mammalian testosterone metabolism using a simple input/output model. We will first look at its basic biochemistry & its influence on external genital development in the fetus. Finally in part 4, using this basic … Continue reading

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Hyenas: the why of female masculinization (Part 2)

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The disadvantages for the female hyena of having a masculinized urogenital tract when giving birth are clear (see part 1) but are there advantages for the hyena’s society of a having a masculinized and very dominant female? The “why” question … Continue reading

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Hyenas: maternal masculinization makes birth no laughing matter (part 1)

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Birth of their baby is usually fast & uncomplicated in higher primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees, & orangutans. However in man a natural birth is usually prolonged & painful. The evolution of these processes has been discussed in my previous blogs on  … Continue reading

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